Q&A

Questions and Answers

Installation & Settings

PaleoScan runs on PCs, laptop, desktop or workstation. PaleoScan does not run on Mac computers. PaleoScan can also run on Virtual Machines.

PaleoScan requires Windows 64-bit version 7 or above.

The minimum /recommended hardware configuration to run PaleoScan is:


The recommendation for the percentage of physical memory allocated to PaleoScan is to keep the 30% default value for a machine with at least 16GB of RAM.

The “Temporary Directory” stores intermediate volumes computed by PaleoScan. The “Temporary Directory” does not need to be at the same location than the PaleoScan project and can be set by the user. It must however have at least 3 times the size of the seismic volume of free space.

The recommendation for GPU usage is to select the graphic card and for the CPU usage is to keep the default number of threads. Note that enabling the GPU parallelization will not dramatically increase Paleoscan’s performance except for the Properties Modeling module.

CPU parallelization is widely used in PaleoScan but GPU acceleration (using OpenCL technology) is currently used only in the Properties Modeling module and for some attributes computation, such as similarity. When both are enabled, GPU is used instead of CPU for the processes that support GPU. The other processes that do not support GPU but CPU parallelization run faster when CPU multithreading (several threads running on the same CPU) is enabled. However, all the threads are processed on the machine running PaleoScan and share the machine’s memory. Threads cannot be processed separately on different CPUs and memories. Paleoscan’s tasks (Geo-Model, attributes computation...) can only be started from the PaleoScan GUI (Graphical User Interface) as single executables. Distributed environments, with several physical machines with separated memory and CPU, are therefore not supported. 

Our internal benchmarks show that PaleoScan’s performance does not increase linearly with the number of cores used: 8 cores will definitely improve the performance but it will peak at 16 cores and even decrease beyond 16.

PaleoScan accesses hard drives intensely for reading from and writing to the flat file database. PaleoScan therefore works best when Input/Output to hard drives is optimized, either by working locally or through a network with the application and the memory disks at the same physical location. Using Solid State Drives with increased I/O speed will also improve performance.

PaleoScan can import 8/16 bit Segy data and then keeps the original data size. However, almost all the steps of the PaleoScan workflow will create 32 bit volumes (attribute computation, Model-Grid...). As a result, the output volume size is bigger (x2 if 16 bits, x4 if 8 bits) than the original volume.

It is probably a graphic card issue. The user needs to check in the computer settings that the right graphic card is assigned to PaleoScan.

The add-on module needs to be activated through an extension available with a specific license.

Go to the Extensions menu and click on the add-on module(s) to activate them.


The latest PaleoScan uses an updated FlexNet License system. This implies that the license server needs to be updated, the Eliis daemon can be found on our Download page.

In the installation folder of PaleoScan 2018, for example: "C:\Program Files\Eliis\PaleoScan\2018.1\licensing\eliis.exe"

On our website (you need a login and password to access our extranet): Download

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Client support

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Data loading/Exporting

Eliis has developed two data connectors: Petrel® and OpenWorks®.


It is possible to change the unit of certain objects by clicking on the UNIT/CRS Editor icon. This tool is a correction tool and not a conversion tool, it changes the unit of the objects.

Model Grid

The interpretation in the Model Grid is polarity consistent, by default, the interpreted horizons cannot have polarity changes.

Nevertheless, the user can manage unconformities with polarity changes by disabling the "polarity consistency" option in the Properties of the model grid.

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The preview is done using a couple of constraints around the yellow seed while the real geomodel uses all the constraints present in the entire grid.

The horizons coming from the Model-Grid are seismically consistent and present where there are data. In the case of erosion or non-deposition, the horizon will not be mapped. It is geologically consistent.

The horizons coming from the Horizon Stack are modelled through the Geo-Model, meaning they are smoother, covering the entire survey, even in the case of erosion or non-deposition, and following the trend of the seismic. They are no longer seismically consistent.

Not necessarily, even if there is a gap in the marked horizons. By increasing the interpolation parameter for the Geo-Model creation, PaleoScan will fill the gaps and the Horizon Stack will be complete (if the Interpolation Size is high enough).

To rename a horizon from the Model-Grid, the user has to open the Horizon List, right click on the name and select the option Rename.

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The horizon can also be selected (F keyboard shortcut) by double clicking on the horizon in the Model-Grid (the horizon turns red), it can then be named from the Properties window.

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Having gaps in the preview does not mean having a lack of nodes, it just means that the nodes inside the gaps are not linked to the rest of the Model-Grid. To address this issue, the user needs to connect nodes inside the gaps to nodes outside the gaps (i.e. where there is a preview).

If there is a gap in the preview that the user cannot fill, increasing the interpolation parameter in the Geo-Model Creation window will help fill the gaps in order to have a complete Geo-Model.

To refine the grid, the user needs to be in cross navigation mouse mode (G shortcut). They then need to place the seed on a specific event and press W to activate the chosen event. Next, they have to place the yellow seed on the belonging event and press W again, PaleoScan will connect both horizon patches. This action can be repeated as many times as needed to extend the current horizon as desired.

Once the user is done with the horizon refinement, they can click on the space bar to validate or on M to mark the event.

It is possible. To do this, the user needs to open the Model-Grid and click on the Grid Constraints and then Model-Grid Constraint icon and follow the workflow.

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The user needs to make sure to start from the initial Grid (and not the AutoInterp). This ensures that the constraint from the horizons will be applied to a "blank canvas", and that there will not be any conflict.

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They need to add the horizons to be used as constraints for the Initial Grid using the Horizon Constraint button.

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Finally, they have to re-run an auto-interpretation using the Automatic Propagation button in order to take into account the horizon inserted as constraints.

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The user has to keep in mind that if the horizons used as constraints are not single-polarity, PaleoScan may give results that are not consistent with the first interpretation.

To save or extract a specific horizon the user needs to mark the horizon, then select it using the Selection Mode (F shortcut) and click on the blue floppy disk in the top toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+S.

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The grid can be generated between two horizons, or from the top/bottom of the seismic to the key horizon. The option is available in the Advanced Options of the Model-Grid Creation tool.

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The input horizons need to be continuous where the Model-Grid is to be generated: no node will be computed between a hole (=void) and a surface, or a hole (=void) and another hole (=void). The Propagate/Interpolate tool available from the Horizon toolbar can be used to fill existing gaps or to generate full surfaces from a picked horizon.

In order to properly interpret and model the stratigraphic level of interest, it is strongly advised to shift both the upper and lower boundaries of +/- 100 to 300ms. This preliminary data conditioning can be done using the Vertical Shift tool available from the Horizon toolbar.

A cropped seismic volume can also be created. Using the Extraction tools available from the Volume toolbar, the user can create an extraction area and then extract this sub volume from the original one. The Model-Grid can then be created on this cropped volume.

Yes, to re-edit a marked horizon, the user needs to activate the cross-navigation mouse mode (G shortcut), put the seed on the marked horizon and press W. The horizon can then be edited as desired.

In the Advanced Options of the Model-Grid creation tool, an Exclusion Zone(s) parameter allows the user to drop objects (layers, geobodies and Multi-Z) so that PaleoScan will not create nodes inside those objects.

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The nodes display is a projection when the seismic section is not located exactly at the centre of the patch. Therefore, the nodes might be slightly shifted compared to the seismic events. The patches, which define the horizons, will follow the seismic events anyway.

The user needs to click on the Update button at the bottom of the horizon list to refresh it. The marked horizons will appear with a M

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If faults and/or exclusion zones were used for the Model-Grid generation, there will be voids at the location of the faults/exclusion zones. This is quite useful if the user does not want to generate the grid around salt domes for instance. If the user wants to have nodes at these locations, they must not use the faults/exclusion zones option.

A marked horizon is a horizon that the user decides to highlight using the M keyboard shortcut. It is displayed in colour. However, it is not a saved horizon. Horizons that are not marked are also taken into account and validated by pressing the Space bar. All horizons, marked and not marked, will be used to calculate the Geo-Model.

The global interpretation needs to be saved using the top bar of the Model-Grid window or the Save Interpretation button of the Model-Grid toolbar.

Horizon stacks

When the Horizon Stack is computed directly from the Geo-Model, it is not possible to choose the horizons that will make up the Horizon Stack. The user can only choose an interval, the number of horizons and the attribute(s) to map.

Nevertheless, the user can choose all the horizons of the Horizon Stack if it is computed from the Sequence Stratigraphy toolbar (available in the Advanced Interpretation add-on module), using the New Horizon Stack from Sequence tool. In that case, the user can define the limits of the sequences within which the Horizon Stack will be created.

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To save or extract a specific horizon from a Horizon Stack, the user has to right click on the top bar of the Horizon Stack viewer and select the option called Create Horizon(s). By default, PaleoScan will save and extract the currently displayed horizon, but a top, a bottom and a step can also be defined to save and extract a set of single horizons.

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Platform

PaleoScan can deal with different types of units (foot, meter, mile, yard, inch). For the wells, all the data are converted in meters into the application.

The CRS of a project can be defined upon creation and can be modified later on. 

The CRS of each object (seismic volumes, horizons, wells…) can be specified upon import and can be modified later on in the Unit/CRS Editor.


When PaleoScan™ creates volumes, they are first generated as temporary file. If there is a lack of disk space, the user can change the location of the temp. file via “Tools/Settings/Optimizations”.

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The cursor can be displayed simultaneously all viewers by activating the cursor option from the Properties window of each viewer. 

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By default, PaleoScan™ always generates/displays the Inline. To generate/display the Crossline/Time Slice, the user has to open a volume, then from the Volume Manager widget, click on the Inline tab and then click on Xline or Time Slice.

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To synchronize colour bars, the user has to click on the viewer which has the colour bar he wants to use, then keep holding down the ALT keyboard and drag and drop the colour bar into the other viewer.

To synchronize viewers, the user has to keep holding down the ALT key and drag and drop one viewer onto another one. To desynchronize viewers, the user has to keep holding down the ALT keyboard and drag and drop one viewer onto itself.

To reduce the size of a project, the user can use the Data management tool available from the general toolbar.

The Data Management tool is a table which quickly summarizes the X-line and Time Slice volumes and their sizes. The total size of the project is displayed at the bottom left corner of the window.

The volumes that have not been computed are in red. The already computed volumes are in green. The user has to check or uncheck the boxes to either compute or delete the associated volume. Finally, they can click on Run to launch the computations. Note that it is impossible to delete the Inline volume via this interface because all the other volumes (X-Line and Time Slice) are computed from the Inline one.

In the Project Data Exchange window, the current project is displayed on the left-hand side of the window, whereas the remote project is on the right-hand side. To display the remote project, the user has to select it from the pull-down menu. If the project is not listed, they can search for it using the Scan Projects button.Data can be transferred between the current project and a remote project. For the transfer of volumes, the user can check the Crossline and/or Time-Slice options to associate the X-line and Time-slide volumes in the copy. Items can be deleted from the project browser by using the Delete option (Red Cross).To transfer items, the user needs to select them and click on the arrows in the middle of the Project Data Exchange tool. When the process is over, a message is displayed at the bottom of the interface. Several items can be selected and sent to the other project simultaneously.

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Data can be transferred between PaleoScan™ projects. This tool is useful to work on the local drive and then send results on a shared folder of the network. The Project Data Exchange tool is available from the general toolbar.

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In the Project Data Exchange window, the current project is displayed on the left-hand side of the window, whereas the remote project is on the right-hand side. To display the remote project, the user has to select it from the pull-down menu. If the project is not listed, they can search for it using the Scan Projects button.Data can be transferred between the current project and a remote project. For the transfer of volumes, the user can check the Crossline and/or Time-Slice options to associate the X-line and Time-slide volumes in the copy. Items can be deleted from the project browser by using the Delete option (Red Cross).To transfer items, the user needs to select them and click on the arrows in the middle of the Project Data Exchange tool. When the process is over, a message is displayed at the bottom of the interface. Several items can be selected and sent to the other project simultaneously.

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Remote Links:

A remote link corresponds to a symbolic link to objects (Volumes and Horizon Stacks) contained in another reference project. It is commonly referred to as “shortcuts” or “linked files”.

This kind of link is a faster way to exchange data between projects and can be used to launch local computations. Moreover, it allows reducing the size of the working project.

A remote link can be created from the data exchange tool. The option Volume Copy Mode has to be unchecked (default mode). Once the remote link is generated, the remote object is displayed in the project browser of the working project with a specific icon: 

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To physically copy a volume, the user has to check the option Volume Copy Mode in the bottom left corner of the Project Data Exchange tool.  

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To change the style of an object, the user has to be in selection mouse mode (F shortcut), then double click on the object to select it and then change the style of the object through the properties panel.

To display an object (faults, wells, markers, geobodies etc.…), this object has to be opened in the 3D viewer. Right click on the object in the Project Browser and choose “Open in 3D". The user can also drag and drop the object into the viewer or double click on it.

To do so, the user has to open a blending viewer and then drag and drop each volume. The transparency can be adjusted by moving the cursor up and down. This type of display is also available for arbitrary lines, horizons and horizon stacks.

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The following shortcuts can be used:

Shift+C: close all the window

Shift+T: tile all the windows

Shift+H: horizontally tile all the windows

Shift+V: vertically tile all the windows

Shift+M: minimize a window

Shift+N: restore the window’s normal size.

 

PaleoScan will automatically save all the imported data and all the calculated volumes.

All the objects created in PaleoScan need to be saved manually by the user.

The Model-Grids need to be saved using the Model-Grid toolbar save button. A back-up save is also automatically created every 100 propagations.

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Faults need to be saved using the Fault tool bar save button. An emergency save is automatically created every 10 fault validations. The saving frequency can be modified from the settings.

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Manually picked geobodies have to be saved individually. Multi-Z also need to be saved manually.

The user needs to drag and drop the seismic volume 3 times inside the 3D viewer, then select each section, using the selection mouse mode, (F shortcut) and change the Inline tab of the Volume Manager to Xline and Time Slice.

On a Time Slice, Horizon Stack or horizon viewer, the user can pick a polyline using one of the polyline mouse modes available from the main toolbar.

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They can then select the polyline, using the selection mouse mode (F shortcut) and save it (CTRL+S) as a Polyline, 3D Polyline or Culture. It will be stored under the Polyline tab of the Project Browser.A Polyline is never displayed in the 3D viewer and is mapped on the selected Horizon Viewer or on the displayed horizon of a selected Horizon Stack viewer. This behaviour enables the geobody extraction.A 3D polyline is displayed in the 3D viewer but not on 2D viewers.A Culture is displayed at Z=0 in the 3D viewer and is snapped to every Time Slice and Horizon Slice in 2D view.

The user can use the buttons from the top toolbar to flip, rotate or stretch the displayed seismic section. The rotation and stretching can then be saved using the top toolbar or by right clicking on the top bar of the viewer.

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To apply the same rotation and stretch to other seismic viewers, the user can first apply the rotation and stretch to a specific viewer. Then, they can open all the other viewers and synchronize them together by holding down the ALT keyboard button and drag and dropping the first viewer into the other ones. Once all the viewers are linked, the user can zoom in/out in the first rotated and stretched viewer, all the other viewers will be updated.


From the 2D viewer, the user has to click on the Horizon Flattening option available at the bottom left corner of the window. To flatten along a horizon from the database, they need to drag and drop the horizon from the Project Browser into the Horizon drop zone and then click on OK. To flatten according to a horizon viewer, they have to click on Viewer as an input and then select the horizon viewer on which to flatten from the pull-down menu.

The flattening can be disabled or activated at any moment thanks to the OFF/ON buttons.

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Attributes

The vertical window size represents the number of samples taken into account for the calculation of the attribute, centred on the horizon. For instance, if the user takes a vertical window size of 7 samples, this means PaleoScan will take into account 3 samples above the horizon, 1 sample along the horizon and 3 samples below the horizon. The size of one sample corresponds to the vertical resolution of the volume.

The type of input volumes on which the different attributes can be calculated can be identified thanks to the icons.

Attribute to be computed on seismic volumes

Attribute to be computed on Geomodel

Attribute to be computed on seismic volumes and/or Geomodels

Real-time attributes are calculated along the plan of the displayed section, therefore, only 2D attributes can be generated. An attribute based on 3D computations would be too computationally expensive to display that way.

2D Lines

Yes, the 3D automatic horizon tracking workflow can also be applied to 2D lines. 3D Geo-Models and Horizon Stacks can be generated from 2D lines interpretation.

In PaleoScan, the mis-tie corrections applied to 2D line is not static but variant, it is therefore not possible to define a specific 2D line as a reference for the correction. All the 2D lines move up or down in relation to one another, according to the marked horizons.

2D lines can be added to an existing 2D Model-Grid by right clicking on an existing 2D interpretation and selecting the Add 2D Line(s) option from the pull-down menu. This option is also available from the Model-Grid toolbar. The user will then need to run an Automatic Propagation in order to generate links between nodes on the added 2D lines.


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On 2D Model-Grids, the Geo-Model preview is computed and displayed according to the marked horizons only. Therefore, the user first needs to mark at least two horizons before launching the preview.

Yes, it is possible. To do so the user needs to have generated a 2D Horizon Stack. They then need to use the 2D Horizon Stack Interpolation option to generate a 3D Horizon Stack. This option is available from the Horizon Stack toolbar, from the Project Browser context menu or from the 2D Horizon Stack context menu.


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Finally, the 3D Geo-Model from Horizons tool, available from the Horizon toolbar can be used to generate the 3D Geo-Model, using the 2D interpolated Horizon Stack as an input.

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Fault Picking

Yes, when the user starts picking a fault in the Inline direction, they can keep picking the fault in other directions such as Xline, Time Slice and even on Horizon Stacks.

Yes, it is possible to merge two or more faults using the Faults Merging/Splitting tools available from the Fault toolbar. It is also possible to split a fault which has been previously merged.

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Yes, the user needs to click on the EDIT icon of the Fault picking toolbar and then double click on the fault you wish to edit. You can add, move or remove fault sticks.

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PaleoScan can deal with reverse fault by generating two horizons for the same event. In case of a steep dip, everything works fine. In the case of a low angle fault, PaleoScan can handle the reverse fault if there is a low throw.

Workflows

1. Import data into PaleoScan: seismic, faults, wells, markers, culture data.

2. Insert or interpret constraint areas in PaleoScan: faults, salt (Multi-Z).

3. Model-Grid computation:

            - Choose the right Model-Grid parameters for the seismic: patch size, polarity, smooth level, undersampling.

            - Refine the AutoInterp Model-Grid (horizon editing), using the cross-navigation mouse mode (G shortcut) and then W to activate horizons and M to mark them.

            - Quality check the interpretation using preview modes.

4. 3D Geo-Model Computation:

            - Choose the 3D Geo-Model parameters: smooth size, link probability, interpolation size.

            - Quality check the Geo-Model.

5. 3D Geo-Model applications:

            - Basic platform: Horizon Stack, Attributes, Geobody modelling, Fault management, Salt management, Well correlation.

            - Add-on modules: Sequence stratigraphy, Automatic geobody extraction, Property modelling, RGB blending, Well tie, Coloured inversion, Spectral blueing.

1. Disconnect Patches of Active Horizon: to disconnect all the patches composing the active horizon displayed in the Horizon Viewer, the user needs to click on the Disconnect All Patches From Active Horizon button in the Model-Grid toolbar. The current horizon will progressively disappear from the Horizon Viewer. This horizon will no longer be taken into account in the Model-Grid interpretation, it can then be picked again in a better way.

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II. Disconnect Patches between Horizons:
In order to clear the interpretation in a specific location of the Model-Grid, patches between horizons can be disconnected. This means that the links between all the patches included between these horizons will be broken with a 3D effect. The interpretation can be restarted later without any automatic propagation in order to manually control the propagation between patches. The refinement of this blank zone will be controlled using the correlation threshold available from the Interp Viewer properties. Links between both horizons are no longer taken into account in the Model-Grid interpretation. As a result, marked horizons previously included in this area will disappear.
The horizons used to define the area in which patches will be disconnected have to be marked horizons.
The user has to select both marked horizons by using the selection mouse mode and the CTRL key and then click on the Disconnect All Patches Between two selected Horizons option available from the Model-Grid toolbar.

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III. Filling Option: Once the horizon is propagated, the small gaps can be filled using the Fill Active Horizon option of the Model-Grid toolbar. To do so, the user has to click on the button several times to complete as much as possible the horizon. This tool uses the similarity of the seismic traces to connect neighbouring patches to the horizon displayed in the horizon viewer. 
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IV. Horizon Edition:
By using the 2D Preview Model & Position Line, Model-Grid stratigraphic organization inconsistencies can be detected.
Editing tools such as Edit a Horizon, Eraser and Patches Selection, as well as the Force Model-Grid interface are available to quickly refine any horizon.

1. Click on the Spectral Decomposition tool in the Attributes toolbar

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2. Drag and drop the input volume into the Volume selection area.

Then, use the cross-navigation mouse mode to select a trace that shows an event of interest. The frequency spectrogram along the seismic trace will be displayed. The method to use, either Short Time Fourier Transform or Continuous Wavelet Transform, and its corresponding parameters can be chosen.

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3. Using the Frequency Picking mouse mode, double click on the Spectrogram viewer to select frequencies. The selection of the frequency can be laterally adjusted and a preview of the current selected frequency decomposition is then displayed:

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4. Save the outputs: create volumes or real-time attributes.

If three frequencies have been selected and the Advanced Interpretation add-on module is activated, the three resulting real-time attributes from this interface can be sent to a volume colour blending viewer, using the Send to RGB Viewer button.

5. Display the results on Horizon Stacks

Open a Horizon Stack, right click on the window and select Duplicate Horizon Stack with new attribute or create a new one. Then, select the None filter and drag and drop the saved volume or real-time attribute from Spectral Decomposition. Several Horizon Stacks can be created at the same time by clicking on the cross at the top of the window, especially if several volumes with different frequencies have been computed. Then click on Run to create the Horizon Stacks.

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If the frequencies and parameters to be applied are already known, Spectral Decomposition can be selected as the filter option. The Horizon Stack can then be directly created without computing new volumes or real-time attributes.

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Once the 3 Horizon Stacks have been created, they can be displayed in a Horizon Stack Color Blending Viewer to help the seismic interpretation (if the Advanced Interpretation add-on module is activated). This tool is available from the Color Blending toolbar. The colour blending can also be displayed in the 3D viewer.

1. Create a 2D line set with the desired 2D lines using the New 2D Line Set button available from the 2D Line toolbar:

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2. Generate a 2D Model-Grid on the 2D line set that has been created. Click on the New 2D Model-Grid button available from the Model-Grid toolbar and select the desired 2D line set as input

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3. Refine the Model-Grid using the same tools as for a 3D Model-Grid (Cross-navigation mouse mode, W shortcut to activate a horizon, M to mark it)

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4. Generate the 2D Geo-Model using the Compute Geo-Model button available from the Model-Grid toolbar

5. Generate a 2D Horizon Stack using the New 2D Horizon Stack button of the Horizon Stack toolbar

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6. Optional:  2D Horizon Stack can be interpolated using the 2D Horizon Stack Interpolation option of the Horizon Stack toolbar. The interpolated 2D Horizon Stack will be considered as a 3D Horizon Stack
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7. Optional: A pseudo 3D Geo-Model can finally be created from the 2D interpolated Horizon Stack using the 3D Geo-Model from Horizons tool, available in the Horizon toolbar
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